The 13 Leaders Of The Socialist Movement In Congress

Nancy Pelosi


Nancy Patricia D’Alesandro was born to Annunciata M. “Nancy” Lombardi and Thomas D’Alesandro, Jr., who was the mayor of Baltimore, a United States Congressman and considered by many to be one of the most infamous and powerful machine bosses in Maryland.

She married Paul Frank Pelosi in Baltimore at the Cathedral of Mary Our Queen on September 7, 1963. After a short stint in New York, the Pelosis moved to San Francisco, where Nancy eventually entrenched herself in local Democratic Party politics.

In 1986, the sitting Member of Congress from Pelosi’s district, Sala Burton, became terminally ill with cancer and hand-picked Pelosi as her designated successor. Burton died on February 1, 1987, just a month after being sworn in for a second full term and Pelosi won the special election to succeed her, narrowly defeating San Francisco Supervisor Harry Britt and then easily defeating Republican candidate Harriet Ross in the general election.

In 2001, Pelosi ascended to the position of Democrat Minority Whip and then won election to the position of House Minority Leader upon the resignation of former House Minority Leader Dick Gephardt in 2002. In 2006, when the Democrats were finally able to take the majority in the House of Representatives, she was elected Speaker of the House and is best known for her tireless efforts and under-handed tactics to push ObamaCare through the House.

Presently, Pelosi serves as House Minority Leader. According to the website for the Congressional Progressive Caucus, Pelosi is no longer listed on the membership roles but she was a long-time member of the caucus and her past positions of leadership within the Progressive Caucus, along with her far-left credentials, certainly qualifies her for inclusion on the list.

Notable Quotes:

On ObamaCare: “We have to pass the bill so you can find out what is in it.”
On Unemployment: “Unemployment benefits are creating jobs faster than practically any other program.”
On Energy: “I believe in natural gas as a clean, cheap alternative to fossil fuels.”
On The Budget: “It’s almost a false argument to say we have a spending problem.”
On Jobs: “Every week we don’t pass a Stimulus package, 500 million Americans lose their jobs.”
On Foreign Policy: “Hamas is a humanitarian organization.”
On Politics: “Civilization as we know it today would be in jeopardy if the Republicans win the Senate.”


Mark Takano

Mark Takano’s affiliation with Socialists organizations goes way back. The site WikiKey states:

“In early 2013, mainly Democratic Socialists of America aligned activists, together with many elected officials across the United States came together to urge President Barack Obama to award posthumously the Presidential Medal of Freedom to the legendary organizer, Fred Ross, Sr.. The Saul Alinsky trained radical was the first to organize people through house meetings, a mentor to both Cesar Chavez and DSAer Dolores Huerta, and a pioneer in Latino voter outreach since 1949 when he helped elect Communist Party USA affiliate Ed Roybal as Los Angeles’s first Latino council member, Ross’ influence on social change movements remains strong two decades after his death in 1992.”

The site further goes on to explain that Takano was one of the key “Congressional endorsers of the proposal” and the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) has heaped praise on Takano, most recently for his efforts to bankrupt the nation by resisting attempts by Congress to enact meaningful Social Security and Medicare reform. DSA stated: “DSA backs the call of Alan Grayson (D-FL), Mark Takano (D-CA) and 25 other progressive Democratic members of the House to reject any cuts in the real value of Social Security, Medicaid and Medicare benefits.”

Takano also carries the endorsement of key socialist aligned organizations. For example, as WikiKey states, “The socialist infiltrated, anti-Israel ‘two state solution’ JStreet PAC endorsed Mark Takano in his 2014 Congressional race.”


Mark Allan Takano is a member of the US House of Representatives, representing the 41st Congressional District of California. Upon taking office in 2013, he became the first non-white openly homosexual member of Congress.

Takano was born in Riverside, California on December 10, 1960. He is the grandson of Japanese immigrants. His grandparents and parents were removed from their homes and sent to Japanese American internment camps during World War II. After being released, the families settled in Riverside County.

Takano graduated as valedictorian from La Sierra High School in the Alvord Unified School District in 1979. He graduated from Harvard University with a B.A. in Government in 1983. While a student, he had a job busing tables. As a senior in college, he organized a transcontinental bicycle ride to benefit Oxfam America, an international development agency. In 2010, he graduated from University of California, Riverside with an MFA (Master of Fine Arts) in Creative Writing for the Performing Arts.

In 1988, Takano began teaching British Literature in the Rialto Unified School District, a public school system in San Bernardino County. He continued teaching for 23 years. Since 1990, he has served on the Riverside Community College Board of Trustees. He was elected President of the board in 1991. Takano has served on the Community Advisory Board of the Children’s Spine Foundation and the Board of the Asian Pacific Islander Community Advisory Board at the University of California, Riverside. He has served as chairman of the Riverside Mayor’s Task Force on the Digital Divide. He has been a member of the Association of California Asian American Trustees and a member of Asian Pacific Americans in Higher Education. He is also a recipient of the Martin Luther King Visionaries Award.

Takano represents the people of Riverside, Moreno Valley, Jurupa Valley, and Perris.


Bernie Sanders


Bernie Sanders is the only open socialist in the United States Congress and he is also the founder of the Congressional Progressive Caucus. He makes no secret of his ties to Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) and is often a key speaker at socialist conventions and events. Sanders was born in 1941 in New York to Eli and Dorothy (Glassberg) Sanders. According to the website Wikipedia, most of Sanders family perished in the Holocaust. In what is perhaps the greatest irony of his life and political career, in spite of knowing the evil that was perpetuated by the National Socialist Workers Party in Germany (namely, the Holocaust), Sanders has embraced socialism his entire life.

During his early life, Sanders worked as a carpenter, filmmaker, writer, and researcher and started his political career in 1971 when he joined the anti-Vietnam Liberty Party in Vermont. In 1981, Sanders was elected the mayor of Burlington, Vermont and retained the office until he announced in 1989 that he would not seek re-election. In 1988, Sanders ran for the United States Congress to fill the seat that was vacated when former Senator Jim Jeffords moved to the United States Senate. Sanders lost that election but ran again in 1990 (as an”Independent”) and won the that election by a margin of 56%-40%. Once in the United States Congress, Sanders founded the Congressional Progressive Caucus.

When Jim Jeffords retired from the Senate in 2005, Sanders sought that seat (again as an “Independent”) and won with the support of such notables as Senators Harry Reid and Charles Schumer and in 2015 he shocked political pundits by announcing that he would seek the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination against Hillary Clinton.

Notable Quotes:

“Education should be a right, not a privilege. We need a revolution in the way that the United States funds higher education.”

“You know, I think many people have the mistaken impression that Congress regulates Wall Street… The real truth is that Wall Street regulates the Congress.”

“My God… if you want to run for president, you’re going to need a gazillion dollars.”

“I am prepared to run for President of the United States.”


Sheila Jackson Lee

Fond of accusing everyone who disagrees with her positions as “racist,” Shelia Jackson Lee is one of the more openly socialist Members of Congress. In the past Lee have shown support for some of the worst tyrants in the world, including, the Castro Regime of Cuba, Saddam Hussein, Hugo Chavez and Syrian President Bashar Assad.

Lee has also brought known socialists into her inner circle for years. One of these notables, according to was far-left activist Stoney Cooks:

“Stoney Cooks served as Jackson Lee’s chief of staff and administrative assistant. In 1967, Cooks had joined members of the Students for a Democratic Society and other leftist groups in a delegation that traveled to Czechoslovakia to participate in a propaganda meeting with representatives of the North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong. And in 1973, Cooks had co-sponsored the U.S. Preparatory Committee for the 10th World Festival of Youth and Students, held in East Berlin; this Committee operated from the offices of the Communist Party USA’s official youth front.”


Sheila Jackson Lee was born on January 12, 1950 in Queens, New York. She is the U.S. Representative for the 18th Congressional District of Texas, which includes inner-city Houston. Lee has held this position for 20 years and is known for her demanding and abrasive personality.

Sheila Jackson Lee attended and graduated from Jamaica High School in Queens in 1968. Lee later attended Yale University, where she earned her bachelor’s degree in political science in 1972. Three years later she earned her J.D. from the University of Virginia School of Law.

Lee’s first involvement with politics was as a municipal judge in Houston from 1987 to 1990. She would later join the Houston City Council in 1989.

In 1994, Lee ran against the former incumbent congressman of the 18th Congressional District, Craig Washington. She defeated him easily, winning 63% of the vote in the Democratic primary. She would go up against the Republican nominee, Jerry Burley, and easily beat him in this heavily Democrat district with 73% of the vote.

For 14 years, Sheila Jackson Lee went unchallenged in every Democratic primary from 1996-2008. She never lost reelection with less than 76% of the vote. She wouldn’t be challenged in the Democratic primary again until 2010, where she went up against Jarvis Johnson and Sean Roberts. She easily defeated them with 67% of the vote.

Sheila Jackson Lee was a part of the House Science Committee before 2007. She worked on NASA and space policy while she was a part of that group. She is also a member on the Congressional Black Caucus.

Sheila Jackson Lee is currently married to Dr. Elwyn Lee who works at the University of Houston. She has two children and is a Seventh-Day Adventist.


Raul Grijalva


Grijalva is presently the Co-Chairman of the Congressional Progressive Caucus. His father was a migrant worker from Mexico who immigrated to the United States under the Bracero program. While studying at the University, Grijalva was the leader of the Chicano Liberation Committee and an active member of Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán (MEChA), a radical organization that embraces the separatist “Aztlan” ideology.

Grijalva was elected to the Tucson Unified School District board in 1974 and served until 1986. From 1989 to 2002, Grijalva served as a member of the Pima County Board of Supervisors and also served as chairman from 2000 to 2002.

According to the website Wikipedia, “in 2008 [he] was among 12 members rated by National Journal as tied for most liberal overall. On the ideological map of all House members at GovTrack’s website, Grijalva is ranked farthest to the left. Liberal and progressive activist groups routinely give him high marks for his voting record. Grijalva received a 100 percent score from Americans for Democratic Action, Peace Action, the League of Conservation Voters, the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, NARAL Pro-Choice America, Arab American Institute, and several other notable groups in recent years. With the start of the 114th Congress, Grijalva became the Ranking Member of the House Committee on Natural Resources.”

Grijalva is also a member of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, the LGBT Equality Caucus, the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus and he is probably best known for his opposition to the Iraq War and his support for Amnesty.


Michael Honda

In October 2009, the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) released in its newsletter a list of 70 members of the U.S. Congress who are members of the organization. Honda was one of the 70 members listed.

Presently, Honda serves as one of the vice chairmen of the Congressional Progressive Caucus and has been a strong voice in regards to lifting the embargo against Fidel Castro’s Cuba.

According to RightSideNews, Honda has also accepted financial support from CAIR and has been endorsed by a number of radicals and radical organizations over the years, including, but not limited to: The Council for a Livable World, Juan Lopez, the Northern Region chair of the California District Communist Party USA, and Joelle Fishman and Amy Dean, notables in the Communist Party USA.


Michael Honda was born in Walnut Grove, California, on June 27, 1941. He currently resides in San Jose, California. Honda married his wife Jeanne in 1967, and they remained married until Jeanne died in 2004. The couple had two children, Michelle and Mark.

Honda was sent to a Japanese internment camp in Colorado called Camp Amache during World War II when he was only one year old. His family was finally able to return to California in 1953. While attending San Jose State University Honda decided to join the Peace Corps for three years. He went back to school after returning from his duty in El Salvador to get a bachelor’s degree in Biological Science and Spanish from San Jose State University in 1968. Michael Honda earned his Masters Degree in Education from San Jose State University in 1974. After graduation he become a science teacher and eventually a public school principal.

Honda began his political career in 1981 when he was elected to the San Jose Unified School Board. After nine years in that position, he was elected to become a member of the Santa Clara Board of Supervisors in 1990. He joined the California State Assembly six years later. After his time in the California State Assembly ended, Honda decided to run for the United States House of Representatives.

Honda easily won the democratic nomination to run for the United States House of Representatives in the 15th Congressional District of California. He beat out Republican Jim Cunneen and Libertarian Ed Wimmers after getting more than 54 percent of the votes in the general election in November of 2000.

Michael Honda easily won his re-election bids for the United States House of Representatives in 2002, 2004 and 2006. Honda also easily won his re-election bids in 2008 and 2010. After redistricting in California, Michael Honda was forced to run for election in the 17th Congressional District in 2012. Despite the district change, he was still able to receive 73.5 percent of the vote. He had his closest re-election bid in 2014 when he only defeated Ro Khanna with 51.8 percent of the vote.


Keith Ellison


Ellison is the first open Muslim elected to the United States Congress. Along with Raul Grijavla, he is the Co-Chairman of the Congressional Progressive Caucus and is probably best known for his insistence that he take his oath of office on the Koran.

Ellison is the son of Leonard Ellison and Clida (Martinez) Ellison and was born Catholic but converted to Islam at the age of 19 as part of his quest for “social justice.” To put it in Ellison’s own words: “I can’t claim that I was the most observant Catholic at the time [of my conversion]. I had begun to really look around and ask myself about the social circumstances of the country, issues of justice, issues of change. When I looked at my spiritual life, and I looked at what might inform social change, justice in society… I found Islam.”

As a law student in 1989 and 1990, Ellison wrote several columns under the name “Keith E. Hakim” in the student newspaper, the Minnesota Daily defending Louis Farrakhan and suggesting that Whites be required to pay slavery reparations to Blacks.

Ellison sought election to the Minnesota House of Representatives in 2002 and was elected to the House of Representatives in the Democrat wave of 2006. Since entering the United States Congress, Ellison has worked to pass bills that would allow the federal government to levy taxes on a wide range of banking and financial transactions and has repeatedly had to quell allegations that he has ties to Radical Islam.


Ruben Gallego

Gallego is one of the new kids on the block as he was first elected to Congress in 2014. However, the Congressional Progressive Caucus has already elevated him to be on of its vice-chairmen. Look for more on Gallego in the future.


Chicago native Ruben Marinelarena Gallego became a congressman in Arizona’s seventh district in 2014. Born on November 20, 1979 to second generation American Hispanic immigrants, Gallego was raised by a single mother, Elisa. Born Ruben Marinelarena, the congressman eventually changed his last name to Gallego to honor his grandfather.

Gallego graduated from Harvard University in 2004, with a degree in International Relations. After college, Gallego joined the Marine Corps. He served in Iraq in combat unit Lima, Third Battalion, 25th Regiment. Gallego was noted as saying that his unit saw a high number of combat exchanges and fatalities in a short period of time as compared to other units.

While in Iraq, Ruben lost his best friend, Jonathan Grant, a fellow Marine, when he was cut down by an IED. For one year, in 2005 to 2006, 46 Marines and two Navy Corpsmen, lost their lives in Iraq. IEDs were responsible for a significant amount of the casualties. Upon returning from Iraq, Gallego was among a number of veterans seeking treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Searching for help was a frustrating process for Ruben, leaving him discouraged. His outlook changed when he met former Arizona congressman Harry Mitchell. Mitchell’s efforts for veterans inspired Gallego to pursue a career in politics.

Gallego’s first elected office was to the Arizona House of Representatives in 2011 where he was named Assistant Minority Leader. Gallego served the 27th District until March, 2014 when he stepped down to run for office in Arizona’s 7th Congressional District.

Gallego sits on multiple boards including the Children’s Museum, the Valley’s Citizen League and the President’s Community Advisory Board for South Mountain Community College. Congressman Gallego currently serves on the House Armed Services Committee and Natural Resources Committee.

A Roman Catholic, Ruben Gallego resides in South Mountain with his wife Kate, who is a member of the Phoenix City Council. His interests include watching baseball, and eating Indian food, especially naan with garlic.


Mark Pocan


Mark Pocan is the First Vice-Chairman of the Congressional Progressive Caucus. Pocan was born in Kenosha, Wisconsin in 1964. In November 2012, Pocan replaced Tammy Baldwin in Congress when she was elected to the U.S. Senate. Coincidentally, he also replaced Baldwin in the Wisconsin State Assembly when Baldwin was first elected to Congress.

Pocan, who is a card-carrying member of the AFL-CIO self-identifies as a “progressive Democrat.” Openly homosexual, he was one of the most active members of the Wisconsin State Assembly on the so-called “same-sex marriage” debate and was considered to be one of the most “progressive” members of the Wisconsin State Assembly.

On November 24, 2006, Pocan “married” his long-term partner, Philip Frank in Toronto, Canada and has received distinguished awards from Planned Parenthood, the Wisconsin League of Conservation Voters, the Wisconsin Aids Fund, the ACLU and a number of other left-wing organizations.


David Cicilline

Cicilline is another new kid on the block. He joined the Congressional Progressive Caucus in 2011 and is now one of its vice-chairmen. He is known as a strong proponent of Amnesty of for illegal aliens and he joined Nancy Pelosi and a number of other socialist Members of Congress on a junket to Fidel Castro’s Cuba.


David Cicilline was born on July 15th, 1961 in Providence, Rhode Island. He grew up in the South Side of Providence. His mother – Sabra Peskin Cicilline – is Jewish while his father – John Francis “Jack” Cicilline – is Catholic. His father was an attorney in Providence defending Mafia figures in the 1970s and 1980s and he eventually became an aide to Mayor Joseph A. Doorley.

Cicilline moved to Narrangansett before he started high school. During his high school years, Cicilline served as president of his graduating class – 1979. He also participated in a civic education program entitled Close Up Washington. During this time, he began to become particularly interested in public service. Often times he would ask his parents to drop him off at Town Council meetings and school board meetings. He even managed to successfully petition for Narrangansett High School to begin teaching Italian.

After high school, he went to Brown University and graduated Magna Cum Laude in 1983 with a degree in Political Science. While at Brown, he established a branch of College Democrats with his classmate – John F. Kennedy, Jr. After graduating from Brown University, he attended Georgetown University Law Center and earned a law degree in 1986.

Before turning to politics, Cicilline served in the District of Columbia as a public defender. After a few years, he then returned to Rhode Island and opened a practice in civil rights law and criminal defense. In 1995, he began his public service career in the Rhode Island House of Representatives.


Matt Cartwright

Cartwright immediately joined the Congressional Progressive Caucus upon entering Congress and quickly moved up to be listed as one of the organization’s vice-chairmen. According to WikiKey, “The socialist infiltrated, anti-Israel ‘two state solution’ JStreet PAC endorsed Matt Cartwright in his 2014 Congressional race” and is endorsing him again for his upcoming 2016 race.

Aside from his support for this anti-Israel organization, Cartwright is best known for his strong opposition to fracking and his strong support of so-called environmental measures.


Matt Cartwright serves as a United State Representative from the State of Pennsylvania’s 17th congressional district. Metropolitan areas in the district he represents include Easton, Wilkes-Barre and Scranton. He was sworn in as a congressman in January of 2013. He serves as the regional whip in congress and was elected as the class president during his first term.

Cartwright serves on the House Committee on Government Oversight and Government Reform where he is on the subcommittee of Energy, Policy, Health Care and Entitlements and the subcommittee of Public Lands and Environmental Regulation. He is also on the House Committee of Natural Resources where he is on the subcommittee of Energy and Mineral Resources and the subcommittee of Public Lands and Environmental Regulation.

Cartwright was born in Erie, Pennsylvania. After high school, he went to Hamilton College where he earned a Bachelors degree in History and graduated with honors. Next, he went to the University of Pennsylvania Law School to study law, and he later did additional studies at the London School of Economics. After his education was completed, he began practicing law for Munley, Munley & Cartwright, a Scranton, Pennsylvania, firm and stayed at this job before leaving it to run for Congress.

Cartwright is married to Marion Munley. They have two sons together and live in Moosic, Pennsylvania.


Jan Schakowsky

Born on May 26, 1944, Janice “Jan” Schakowsky has represented Chicago’s northern suburbs in Congress since 1999, serving as the 9th District’s Democratic Congresswoman in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Schakowsky was born in Chicago as Janice Danoff and raised by Jewish immigrant parents from Lithuania and Russia. Raised in the Windy City, she would eventually attend the University of Illinois, where she joined the Delta Phi Epsilon sorority. She graduated in 1965 with a B.A. in Elementary Education.

From 1976 to 1985, she served as the program director of Illinois Public Action, described as the state’s largest public interest organization. She then served as the Illinois State Council of Senior Citizens’ executive director until 1990 when she ran for the Illinois House of Representatives and won, serving eight years in the Illinois General Assembly.

In 1998, she announced her intention to run for the U.S. House of Representatives and won with 75 percent of the vote, defeating Republican candidate Herbert Sohn. In the nine elections since taking office, she has never received less than 66 percent of the total vote in the general election.

Currently Schakowsky is a Chief Deputy Whip in the House Democratic leadership as well as Vice Chair of the Steering and Policy Committee. She is the senior ranking Democrat on the Commerce, Manufacturing and Trade Subcommittee and is also a member of the House Energy and Commerce Committee.

She also serves on the House Energy Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, as well as the Energy Subcommittee on Health. Rather comically, in 2010, she was appointed as a member of President Barack Obama’s 18-member National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform.

Schakowsky lives in Evanston, Illinois with her second husband Robert Creamer, a consultant for the far-left socialist/progressive activist group Americans United for Change. They have two children, one step-daughter and six grandchildren.


Barbara Lee

Many socialists prefer to hide behind the term “progressive,” but Barbara Lee doesn’t hide; she wears her socialism proudly on her sleeve.

Joseph Farah, the publisher of WND once stated: “The values Lee promotes – and has always promoted – are the values of socialism, communism and anti-Americanism.”

According to the website WikiKey, “Lee’s radicalism dates at least to the early 1970s when she was a confidential aide to Black Panther Party ‘Minister of Defense’ Huey Newton.”

WikiKey also mentions that Lee was an “Executive Board member of the Communist Party USA,” and David Horowitz’s website,, lists a number of Lee’s far left affiliations and positions over the years.


Lee is not simply a Socialist, she is, without argument, one of the most dangerous socialist presently serving in Congress.


Barbara Lee was born Barbara Jean Tutt on July 16, 1946 in El Paso County, Texas. She is the daughter of recently deceased Mildred Parish Massey and late Lieutenant Colonel, Garvin Alexander Tutt. Her biological father, James Lewis, was a veteran of the Korean War.

Lee has two sisters, Beverly Hardy and Mildred Whitfield. A DNA analysis revealed that Lee descended from people of Sierra Leone and Guinea-Bissau and she grew up in the Southwest with her grandparents.

As a young girl, Lee enjoying sewing, making dresses and fencing. Her mother paid for her Catholic school tuition, piano, sewing and ballet lessons, along with Brownies and Girl Scouts activities. She attended a private Roman Catholic school, St. Joseph’s, from the first to eighth grades.

In 1960, following the death of her grandmother, Willie, Lee’s family moved to California to live near her two maternal aunts. While attending San Fernando High School, Barbara challenged a district policy that prevented her from trying out for the cheer leading team on the basis of her race. Lee’s endeavors proved successful and she became the first black cheerleader in her school district. As a teenager, Lee won two music achievement awards from the Rotary Club and the Bank of America. She graduated High School in 1964.

Prior to attending college, Lee lived in the San Francisco Bay Area with her two children. Her three person family received public financial assistance during that period. While enrolled in Mills College in Oakland, Lee became the president of the Black Students’ Association. She also acted as a leader in the region’s primary civil rights movement. In 1973, she earned her Bachelor’s degree from Mills College. Two years later, Lee was granted a Master’s degree in social work from the University of California, Berkeley.

Lee’s two sons currently work in the insurance industry. Tony Lee is the chief executive officer of one of the United States’ largest African-American owned insurance brokerage and consulting firms, Dickerson Employee Benefits. Craig Lee is a long term senior executive at State Farm. Barbara Lee continues to reside in California to this day.



Inclusion on this list is not based on the opinion of the authors or, in effect, the subjective opinions of any third party. Inclusion on this list is based upon present or past membership in the Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC), a caucus within Congress that has long-standing and deep ties and, in the opinion of a number of political scholars, was an arm of the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) at the time of its inception. According to David Horowitz’s website: “Members of the Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC) are undoubtedly socialists, though most shy away from the label. The CPC has long had ties to the far-left Institute for Policy Studies, Democratic Socialists of America (the largest Marxist group in the country), and the Communist Party USA.” Additionally, a number of authoritative articles have been written on the historical connection between the Congressional Progressive Caucus and the DSA and we encourage the reader to do independent research if the topic is of further interest.

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